LBT449~450惠珍 updated on Dec 08
《Biological Foundations of Language》Preface: The history of the biological language
Assigned reading: Page 449-450
A very serious shortcoming of most Roman writers on language was the limitation of their discussions to Latin and Greek, which Steinthal regarded as the chief factor for their failure to formulate a more general language theory. In the writings of Gaius Plinius Secundus (23-79 A.D.) and of Strabo (63 B.C.-24 A.D.) only Greek and Latin are given serious consideration. One of the few to include other languages as well was the Epicurean Diogenes of Oinoanda (2nd century A.D.) who wrote that men created language everywhere quite naturally; it was not a conscious invention or the result of convention. No single man or god could have created it .
The church fathers and Christian thinkers of the first centuries of our era, intent on defining man’s relationship to God, were content to establish God’s rule over language, and language differences were not of primary concern to them. These differences were to become a problem, once church had begun to spread among people with different languages. The study of languages and language theory would receive new impetus whenever a country was to be Christianized.
In the succeeding 1500 years the interpretation of language in terms of revelation and biblical exegesis stood in the foreground of language theory. The natural basis of language was never completely lost to view, and some of the most important theologians included it in their discussion.
The greater thinker of the fourth century, St. Augustine (394-430), placed the origin of language in man’s reason, as had the stoics, and compared the evolution of language with language development in children.. Boethius (480-525), a Roman statesman and philosopher, who translated Aristotle into Latin, emphasized the difference between language and thought. Articulated language is different everywhere, but tears, mourning, and emotional expression are universally understood. The North African, Fabius Caludius Gordianus Fulgentius (480-550)wrote a world history, in which he expressed the belief that language did not come from God, but had grown from “wild root”. For the Bishop Isidor of Sevilla (565-636) language was an inseparable characteristics of a people; he believed everyone learned the language of his race without any apparent effort.
4世紀偉大的思想家聖.奧斯丁（354-430），從人類理性來看『語言的起源』，就像禁慾主義者（或斯多葛學派哲學家），他把『語言和兒童語言發展』拿來比較。羅馬政治家及哲學家Boothis：他曾把亞理斯多德翻成拉丁文，他則強調『語言與思想』的不同，在任何地方『發音清晰的、可成為系統的語言』和『口語』是不同的。但是，大家都知道什麼是『淚水、悲傷』等情感的表達。 北非的Fabius Caludius，則寫了部世界史，其中，他認為『語言不是從上帝而來的』; 而是從『野外生出來的』。Isidor of Sevilla 主教，則認為：語言是『跟人們不可分離的』，『語言是各個種族都可以輕而易舉得到的』。
After an interval of four centuries in which men were absorbed by the problems of the political intergration of Europe, the interest in the problem in language was revived with the rise of Schola. Its founder, Anselm of Canterbury (1033-1109), wrote on language in the years after 1060. Language only approximates reality and is not identical with God’s creation. IT may, therefore, be subjected to analytic study and psychological interpretation. This attitude toward language is also seen in the writings of his student Peter Abelard (1079-1142) who was the most influential language photosphere of his time. He wrote in his “Logia” (ca 1113-1123) that different designation of the same thing- by different languages- did not imply different meanings; men had only assigned a variety of sounds to the same thing. What people meant was everywhere the same, because meaning was a part of nature. Language was not God’s creation; the man of reason is master of his language and never ruled by it, Latin does not provide the basis or limit of human reason; like all knowledge it can be subject to improvement.
在四個世紀的整合後，在歐洲，人們吸收了各種政治上整合的問題，因為Schola的盛行，引起了人們對語言的興趣。Anselm of Centebuary是Schola的創始人，在1060年，寫了這個作品：語言只是「極度的寫實」，而不是「上帝所創造的」，也因此，語言是屬於：「分析性的研究」及「心裡學上的詮釋」。這種對語言的態度，也有在他的學生Peter 的作品中看到， Peter是當代最有影響力的哲學家，以不同的語言來說，他的作品「Logia」，跟其他的作品，有著不一樣的「名稱」，即：不只有不同的意義，對於相同的物件，人們也有賦予各種不同聲音去說明（命名）的能力。各種人類的語言（名稱）都是一樣的，因為「意義」是大自然的一部份。即：語言，不是上帝創造的，是人們理性的主宰，而永不會被上帝控制。 就算拉丁文，也沒提供人類理性的基本架構或是限制，拉丁文，就像其他語言知識一樣，是會改進的。
A few Medieval writers placed even greater emphasis on the emphasis on the natural aspect pf language. Petrus Heliae, who taught grammar in Paris after 1140, suggested that there are ,ore systems of grammar as yet unknown and that all languages including the dialects can be systematically described and rationally understood . A contemporary anonymous opusculum of he Bernardine Monastery of Ceteaux expressed the thought that language is the product of a natural law and attempted to substantiate this claim by the law of primacy for the letter a in all languages known . But the most theories did not go that far. Abelard’s student John of Salisbury (ca 1115-1180), wrote in his “Metalogicon’ of 1160 that man received his reason and his ability to speak from the “natura clementissima parens ominum,’ but that names must have been invented by man. ( Language was given again being considered primarily in terms of names) . This separation between a recognized natural language capacity and ,an-made language was maintained by most medieval authors including Petrus Hispanus (ca 1220-1227) who later became Pope John ⅩⅩⅠ, John de Dacia professor at Paris in 1280 and Thomas Aquians (1225-1274). Roger Bacon (ca 1214-1294) was to write in 1292 that differences between languages were based on physiological and climatic factors but proposed that language was the result of willful human invention .
一些中世紀的作家很重視「語言的自然面」， 在1140年後，在巴黎教文法的Petrus Khaliae，認為：還是有很多的「未知的文法系統」，即：語言中，包含各種的方言，能可以被「有系統的描述」，而且，「可以理性的去理解它（方言、語言）。」 同時，Bernadine Monstery of Ceteaux 的小品則認為：「語言是自然世界法則的產物」，他更進一步把這種『天主教中的大主教的偉大法則：認為所有的語言，都該知道「a」這個字母』的想法，具體化。但，大部分的理論都沒有做到這點。 Abelard的學生John of Salisbury，在1160年寫了「Metalogicon」，作品中認為：人們擁有理性，而且可以運用語言的能力。但是，「名稱」，還是由人們創造出來的。（再一次，語言被認為是：還是主要以「名稱」為主）。中世紀的作家，包含Petrus Hispanus, Thomas Aquinas，則可以區別「自然語言的認知能力」和「人類創造的語言」。Petrus Hispanus, 後來變成教宗約翰11世，是在1280年巴黎。而Roger Bacon培根，則在1292年指出：他從「生物學及氣候方面」，來切入語言，他仍認為『語言是人類自由創造出來的』。
According to Ricobald of Ferrara, the separation of language capacity and languages was supported by a miracle he observed in 1293. A deaf-mute acquired hearing and speech after praying at the grave of St. Anthony Padua; he could repeat what was said to him but did not understand the meaning of the words. This proved that the miracle could only establish the God-given physiological language ability but not the knowledge of a particular language which had to be learned .
在1293年，根據Richard of Ferrara 的觀察到的「奇蹟」：他支持：把「語言能力」和「語言本身」分開的說法‧在聖安東尼Padua的墓前禱告後，那些有聽力障礙的人，在學習「聽力和語言能力時」，他們就可以「重複」所聽到的東西，但是，他們並不瞭解「字的意義」‧這也證明了「只有上帝給的心理語言學能力」才能建立起這樣的奇蹟‧但是, 跟「特別語言的知識」是不相關的‧
Observes believed that there must a natural language, the direct expression of untutored language ability. Emperor Frederic Ⅱ (1192/3-1250) was seeking this natural language when he repeated Psametichos’ experiment which failed because the children died. William of Shyreswood (died 1267), an Englishman professor at the University of Paris, included the “signs of the sick” and “ natural sounds” in his definition of man’s language. The Dominican and later Archbishop of Caneterbury, Robert Kilwardby )died 1279) proclaimed that grammar should establish rules for language in general. The characteristics of any one language were as irrelevant to a science of grammar as the, material of the measuring rod or the physical characteristics of objects were to geometry . The natural origin and basic similarity of all languages was also emphasized by a contemporary anonymous tractate, “ De modis significandi” and by Thomas of Erfurth at the end of the thirteenth centenary .
其他人相信一定有「能直接表達出來的「不受教導的」，而獲得語言能力的「自然語言」」‧Emperor Frederic二世，就在他做的Psammeticho實驗時，希望能證明，這種「自然語言」的存在‧只可惜，這實驗因為小孩子死了，而失敗‧英國人同時也是巴黎的教授，William of Shyreswood，則對他自己對「人類語言」的看法，總結道：語言，是「疾病的跡象」和「自然語言」‧多明尼加人以及Archbishop OF Canterbury, Robert Kilwardby，則認為：「在共同的語言上，必須建立有規則的文法」，這種「任何語言都有的特質性」和「文法的科學性」是不相關的‧ 「科學性」就是把語言認為是「可衡量的」物質，或是向幾何學裡的「物體的物理性」‧當代的不知名小冊子、論文，也強調這種語言的起源，和共同語言間的相似性，就像在Thomas Of Erfurth在13世紀末所寫的「De modis significandi”」
 Borst, A., Pp. 164, 178.
 ＿＿＿. Pp. 237,356.
 ＿＿＿. Pp. 392.
 ＿＿＿. Pp. 424,426,450.
 ＿＿＿. Pp..450,605,606,632,635
 ＿＿＿. Pp.636-7
 ＿＿＿. Pp.638
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 ＿＿＿. Pp..797-800,810 et seq., 901-902
 ＿＿＿. P.864
 ＿＿＿. Pp..756,796,799
 ＿＿＿. Pp..798,895
Stoic: 禁慾主義者; S-)斯多葛學派哲學家
Articulate: 1. 使成為系統的整體;使相互連貫 ; 2. 發音清晰的,可聽懂的
Schola: 1) An intermission of work, leisure for learning, learned conversation, debate, disputation, lecture, dissertation. 2) A meeting place for teachers and pupils, place for instruction, place of learning, school. 3)The disciples of a teacher, body of followers, school, sect. (--Elementary Latin Dictionary, OUP
Approximated reality: This painting approximates reality. ->这幅画逼真
Metalogicon : The Metalogicon of John of Salisbury: A Twelfth-Century Defense of the Verbal and Logical Arts of the Trivium
See the upper part